Encyclopaedia Iranica



Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles.


The total Encyclopaedia Iranica currently consists of around 9,000 articles, and is not yet completed. Other articles, more directly related to the Bahá’í Faith, can be found elsewhere at Bahá’í Library Online.

Note that the column “Description and comments” is AI assisted (edited output of questions to ChatGPT 3.5 like “summarize text in maximum 25 words”). Without that it would have been much more time consuming to create. [A.B.]

See other Encyclopaedia Iranica articles on this site, and see About the Encyclopaedia Iranica.

Religion, philosophy, language, literature etc.

Article Description and comments Authors Year

Rose and nightingale (gol-o-bolbol)
Literary and decorative metaphor in Persian literature, Sufi poetry, as well as the Bahá’í Faith Layla S. Diba 2001

Rose (gol)
Same as above Hušang Aʿ’lam 2001

Nightingale (bolbol)
Same as above Hūšang Aʿ’lam, Jerome W. Clinton 1989

Beloved (ma’šūq)
Term occuring in Persian literature, Sufism and the Bahá’í Faith, with a variety of meanings. J. T. P. de Bruijn 1989

Candle (šam’)
Metaphor J. T. P. De Bruijn 1990

Color (rang)
Color symbolism in Persian literature and art Annemarie Schimmel, Priscilla P. Soucek 1992

Simorg (simurgh)
Mythical bird Hanns-Peter Schmidt 2002

Burial practices in Zoroastrianism, Islam and the Bahá’í Faith Multiple authors 2000

Cemeteries in Persian folklore Mahmoud Omidsalar 1990

Camphor (kāfūr)
Essential oil used in Islamic funerary rituals Hūšang A’lam 1990

Various calendars Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland 1990

Seven (haft)
Cultural significance of the heptad in Persian history A. Shapur Shahbazi 2002

Week (hafta)
History of the weekly calendar in Iran Badri Gharib 2009

Religious and communal festivals and commemorations Multiple authors 1999

Persian New Year Multiple authors 2000

Haft sin
Seven items beginning with the letter sin (S), a ritual of the Nowruz festival A. Shapur Shahbazi 2002

Fasting in Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Islam and the Bahá’í Faith Jamsheed K. Choksy, Denise Soufi 1999

Commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts Multiple authors 1999

The development of Shi’ite exegetical methods over time Todd Lawson 2003

Baten (hidden) and zaher (visible)
Concepts associated with knowledge (‘ilm) in Shi’ism and Sufism B. Radtke 1988

Baqa (annihilation) and fana (subsistence)
Exploring the mystical experiences of Sufis G. Böwering 1988

Cella (forty day period)
Term referring to any forty-day period Mahmoud Omidsalar, Hamid Algar) 1990

Cosmogony and cosmology
The origin and structure of the universe in various religious traditions. For Shiism this includes elements like the divine throne and the pen. Multiple authors 1993

Aspects of religious conversion in Iranian history Multiple authors 1993

Taqiya (dissimulation)
Concealing one’s true beliefs in times of imminent danger Louis Medoff, Kamran Ekbal 2015, 2012

Islam in Iran
The advent and spread of Islam in Iran, messianism and millenarianism, jihad, and Islamic political movements Multiple authors 2007

Introducing Hadith literature, consisting of reports on the Prophet Muhammad’s actions and sayings. Shahab Ahmed 2002

Shiite doctrine
Focusing on the Imams and a dualistic view. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2005

Hierarchy in the Imamiyya
Hierarchy involving believers, ulema (religious scholars), and internal ranking systems Rainer Brunner 2010

Imamite-Sunnite relations
Relations in the 19th and 20th centuries Rainer Brunner 2010

Imams in Twelver Shi’i Islam
Articles about each of the twelve Imams Multiple authors 1985-2015

Imam Husayn
Third Imam Wilferd Madelung, Jean Calmard, Peter Chelkowski 2004

Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad who is expected to return Said Amir Arjomand, Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Verena Klemm) 2007

Occultation of the Hidden Imam Said Amir Arjomand 2000

Raj’a (return)
Spiritual and eschatological interpretations in Shi’i Islam Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2005

Final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity. In Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Shi’i Islam, Bábí and Bahá’í Faits Shaul Shaked, Werner Sundermann, Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Stephen Lambden 1998

The development of End Time prophecies in Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam Mary Boyce, I. K. Poonawala 1986

Evil figure in Islamic prophecies, who will pretend to be the promised Messiah, appearing before the Day of Judgment Hamid Algar 1993

Prominent Shi’ite Muslim community Multiple authors 2007

Ijtihad (ejtehad)
Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning by an expert in Islamic law Aron Zysow 1998

Jurisprudence (fiqh)
Expressing God’s law (sharī’a) through exposition, analysis, and argument Norman Calder 1999

School in Shi’ism, emphasizing Imams’ traditions as the main source of religious knowledge E. Kohlberg 1984

School of Twelver Shi’ism founded in the 19th century by Shaykh Aḥmad Aḥsā’i Denis Hermann 2017

Daughter of the Prophet Moḥammad Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Jean Calmard 1999

Angels (fereshteh)
Angels in Islam and Persian folklore. In supplement (not online?) 1999

Theological term referring to a divine change in decision or ruling based on new circumstance Wilferd Madelung 1988

Cleansing practices in Islamic Persia Hamid Algar 1992

Dhikr (dekr)
The remembrance of God through reciting His name, in Sufism and the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen 1994

Dua (Doa; prayer)
Islamic prayer of invocation, supplication or request Hamid Algar 1995

Halal (permissible) and haram (prohibited)
Islamic term for “permissible” and “forbidden” things Dana al-Sajdi 2003

Iblis (Eblis)
Devil-ike figure in Islam; the symbolic and moral dimensions of Iblīs in Sufism Hamid Algar 1996

Hell (duzak; jahannam)
Hell in Zoroastrianism and Islam Philippe Gignoux, Mahmoud Omidsalar) 2003, 2000

Jinn (genie)
Supernatural beings from Islamic tradition, folklore beliefs in Persian tradition Mahmoud Omidsalar 2000

Kidr (Kezr)
A prophet in Islamic tradition, influenced by diverse myths Anna Krasnowolska 2009

Mi’raj (me’raj)
The Prophet Muhammad’s heavenly ascent, often associated with the night journey (isrā’) Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2010

Various aspects of Christianity in Persia Multiple authors 1991

Persian translations of the Bible Multiple authors 1989

Daniel (Dānīāl-e Nabī)
Biblical prophet, highlights prophetic elements and diverse traditions Multiple authors 1993

Isaiah, Book of
Book of the Bible, containing prophecies Shaul Shaked 2006

Joseph (Yusuf)
Joseph in Persian literature, Qur’anic exegesis, and Persian art Multiple authors 2009

Gnosticism had various forms in pre-Islamic Iran, blending influences from different religious traditions Kurt Rudolph 2001

Dead Sea scrolls
Collection of manuscripts discovered at the Qumran Caves, in which a number of Iranian elements can be discerned Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin) 1994

Judeo-Persian communities
Starting with the Babylonian exile until the present day; language, literature and music contributions, and Persian impact on Judaism Multiple authors) 2009

Persian elements in the Talmud
Persian influences on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud Jacob Neusner 2005

Talmud (continued)
The impact of Middle Persian culture on Babylonian rabbinic Judaism Yaakov Elman 2010

Prophet of ancient Iran, whose religion became the dominant faith in Iran until the rise of Islam Multiple authors 2000

Ahura Mazda
The one uncreated God in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1984

Dualism in Zoroastrianism, and its influence on Judaism, early Christianity, Gnosticism, and Manicheism Gherardo Gnoli 1996

Farrah (glory)
Term translating to “glory” in Iranian languages, linked to concepts like peace, and happiness; present in Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manicheism Gherardo Gnoli 1999

Fire (ātaš)
Concept in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1987

Water (Āb)
Concept in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1982

Saviour figure in Zoroastrian William Malandra 2000

Hataria Manekji Limji
Parsi from India who served the Zoroastrian community in Iran from 1854 to 1890; Bahá’u’lláh sent several replies to his questions Firoze M. Kotwal, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Christopher J. Brunner, and Mahnaz Moazami 2016

Pre-Islamic religions in Iran
Indo-Iranian practices and Zoroastrianism Philip G. Kreyenbroek 2006

Indo-Iranian religion
Commonalities between ancient Iran and India Gherardo Gnoli 2004

Priests of western Iranians during various historical periods Muhammad A. Dandamayev 2000

Ethno-religious group, followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic and monotheistic religion with Greek, Iranian, and Jewish influences Edmondo F. Lupieri 2008

Persian religion (former world religion) founded by the prophet Mani in the 3rd century CE Werner Sundermann 2009

Roman mystery religion centered on the god Mithras Roger Beck 2002

Greek god; article explores Hermes’ influence in the Roman, Egyptian, and Iranian worlds Albert de Jong 2003

Syncretistic sect close to Shi’ism, forming Syria’s largest minority Meir M. Bar-Asher 2003

Sacred Books of the East
Collection of 50 volumes translated into English between 1879 and 1910 by leading scholars supervised by Friederich Max Müller Carlo G. Cereti 2000

Alchemy (kimia)
The origins of alchemy, Persian influence and Islamic development; alchemy’s mysticism, medical applications, and lasting impact on Western science Pierre Lory 2008

Philosophy (falsafa)
Mazdean philosophy blends Greek thought (mainly Peripatetic and Neo-Platonic) with Zoroastrianism, covering topics like Being, Time, Space, Movement, Nature, Man, the Prime Cause, influenced by diverse philosophical traditions Mansour Shaki 1999

The term ” ‘aql” denotes intellect, crucial in Islamic philosophy, Sufism and literature F. Rahman, W. C. Chittick 1986

Perfect Human Being (Insan-i-kamil)
Concept central in Islamic mysticism, originating with Ibn Arabi (1165 – 1240), embodying oneness with God, moral perfection, and cosmic significance. It evolved from diverse influences Gerhard Böwering 1998

Islamic theosophy, merging Sufi thought and Shi’ite philosophy, Gerhard Böwering 1998

The concept of evil in Zoroastrianism and Shi’ism Gherardo Gnoli, Etan Kohlberg 1998

Fatalism in Islamic philosophy and Persian literature, where destiny, predetermined by God, shapes human existence ‘Abd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb 1999

Free will
Free will in Shi’ism Multiple authors 2000

Farabi (c. 870 – 950)
Islamic philosopher and music theorist, who lived in Baghdad, Egypt and Damascus Multiple authors 1999

Avicenna (c. 980 – 1037)
Persian polymath, physician and philosopher, who died in Hamadan Multiple authors 1987

Illuminationism (falsafa-i-ishraqi)
Philosophical system introduced by Persian philosopher Sohravardi (Suhrawardi; 1155 – 1191) Hossein Ziai 2004

Isfahan school of philosophy
Philosophical movement, emphasizing metaphysical speculation and mystical experience. Key figures include Shaikh Bahai (1547 – 1621), Mir Damad (c. 1561 – 1631) and Mulla Sadra (c. 1571 – 1640) Sajjad H. Rizvi 2007

Mulla Sadra (c. 1571 – 1640)
Persian philosopher and theologian, who lived in Shiraz, Qazvin, Isfahan, Qum, Basra and Najaf Sajjad H. Rizvi 2005

Hegel (1770 – 1831)
German philosopher, who wrote about Zoroastrian thought and Islamic Persian art M. Azadpour 2003

Nietzsche (1844 – 1900)
German philosopher, who admired Persian culture Daryoush Ashouri 2003

Conspiracy theories
Conspiracy theories in Persia Ahmad Ashraf 1992

Ancient peoples of India and Iran who spoke Aryan languages R. Schmitt 1987

Persian language
Early New Persian’s emergence, dialects, and historical context, shaping literature, administration, and scholarship across Islamic civilization Ludwig Paul 2000

Arabic language
Arabic influence on Persian, including loanwords and literary impact Multiple authors 1986

Term referring to the use of letters as numbers; originally used for numbering, it later found applications in religion, poetry, magic and numerology G. Krotkoff 1982

Chronograms hide dates in Persian texts using letter values; they are solved through various methods J. T. P. de Bruijn 1991

Codes (romuz)
Persian cryptography; codes served diplomatic, religious, and magical purposes C. Edmund Bosworth 1992

Aramaic language
Overview of Aramaic language, covering its historical development, dialects, and influence on Iranian languages F. Rosenthal, J. C. Greenfield, S. Shaked 1986

Syriac language
An ancient Aramaic dialect, was vital in Christian literature and translating Greek works, influencing Islamic and Western civilizations Multiple authors 2015

Urdu language
Urdu, a major language in Pakistan and India, influenced by Persian, serves as a lingua franca for the Indian subcontinent. Its literature heavily borrows from Persian. David Matthews 2005

Linguistic loanwords across languages, including Arabic, Persian, Greek, Mongolian, Ossetic, Sogdian, Syriac, and Turkic Multiple authors Multiple years

Persian literature
three main periods of Persian literature: Pre-Islamic, Classical, and Modern Multiple authors 1999, 2006

Persian myths and legends
Myths and legends in Iranian culture; their role in conveying fundamental truths and shaping religious beliefs John R. Hinnells 2004

Epics in Persian literature; explores various heroic epics and their characters, including Rostam and Bahman; the national epic Shahnameh (shah-nama), as well as romantic epics like Nizami’s works François de Blois 1998

Persian fables, short stories often involving animals, gods, or inanimate objects, used to illustrate moral or ethical teachings; the adaptation of fables from various cultures into Persian storytelling traditions Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar 1999

A form of Persian lyric poetry, which has influenced Turkish and Urdu poetry Multiple authors 2016

Rhetorical figures
Rhetorical figures in medieval Persian literature; the influence of Persian and Arabic traditions on each other’s poetic styles Natalia Chalisova 2009

Metrical system (aruz)
Metrical system used in Arabic poetry; influenced Persian poetry L. P. Elwell-Sutton 1986

Hagiographic literature
Hagiographic literature in Persia and Central Asia focuses on Sufi saints, emphasizing spiritual teachings and symbolic meanings over factual details Jürgen Paul 2002

Historiography of Iran, spanning from pre-Islamic to the 20th century, examining narrative evolution and Western influences Multiple authors 2003

Omar Khayyam (1048 – 1131)
Persian polymath and poet from Nishapur Multiple authors 2017

Sanai (1080 – 1131/1141)
Persian poet from Ghazni J. T. P. de Bruijn 2012

Leyli and Majnun (Layli and Majnun)
A narrative poem by Nizami (1141 – 1209), composed in 1188 A. A. Seyed-Gohrab 2009

Attar (c. 1145 – 1221)
Persian poet and Sufi from Nishapur. Note: Bahá’u’lláh’s “Seven Valleys” follows the structure of the Persian poem “The Conference of the Birds”, with some variations B. Reinert 1987

Rumi (1207 – 1273)
Sufi poet who died in Konya (present-day Turkey) Multiple authors 2014

Sadi (Saadi; 1210 – c. 1291)
Persian poet from Shiraz Paul Losensky 2000

Hafez (1315 – 1390)
Persian poet and mystic from Shiraz Multiple authors 2002

Goethe (1749-1832)
German poet, inspired by Sadi Hamid Tafazoli 2001

History of Persian calligraphy Golām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī) 1990

Paper, invented in China, spread to Iran and throughout Asia before the Islamic period. Its usage in the Iranian world before printing and its papermaking process are discussed. Multiple authors 2017

Cut paper
Ornamental technique found in Persian manuscripts and bookbindings from the late 15th to the mid-17th centuries Barbara Schmitz 1993

Pen (qalam)
Reed pen used in calligraphy; also bird quills are discussed Sina Goudarzi, Bahram Grami 2016

Bookbinding 1
Bookbinding in Iran evolved with Persian designs, including blind tooling and Timurid innovations like sophisticated stamping and cutwork Duncan Haldane 1989

Bookbinding 2
Bookbinding involves crafting covers for new books or repairing old ones. Persian bookbinders worked with leather, cloth, and various ornamentation techniques. Iraj Afshar 2005

Lithography 1
Lithography in Persia began in 1821, expanding rapidly with private presses, contributing to diverse book production until the early 20th century Olimpiada P. Shcheglova 2009

Lithography 2
In 19th-20th century India, lithography boomed, especially in Lucknow and Bombay, printing diverse Persian books. Educational and theological texts dominated production. Olimpiada P. Shcheglova 2009

Evil eye (casm zakm)
Historical roots of the concept of the evil eye in various cultures, and preventive measures against harm Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda, Mahmoud Omidsalar 1990

Cultural and historical aspects of charms in Persian traditions Mahmoud Omidsalar 1991

In Persian tradition dreams shape destinies, holding cultural significance, and inspiring believers in Shi’ism. Hossein Ziai 1995

Magic in literature and folklore during the Islamic period; challenges of defining magic and its connection to science and religion; the distinction between high magic, rooted in philosophical traditions, and folk magic, transmitted orally Mahmud Omidsalar 2005

Astrology and astronomy
The development of astronomy and astrology in Iran, highlighting influences from Hellenistic, Indian, and Persian traditions D. Pingree, C. J. Brunner 1987

Historical understanding and influence of planets Antonio Panaino 2016

The historical development of the Zodiac, its association with astronomy, astrology, and its impact on Iranian calendars and cosmology Antonio Panaino 2009

Henry Corbin (1903 – 1978)
French philosopher and orientalist, interpreter of the Persian role in the development of Islamic thought Daryush Shayegan 1993

Aleksandr Tumanski (Alexander Tumansky) (1861 – 1920)
Russian orientalist who translated Persian literature and Bahá’í works, notably Bahá’u’lláh’s Kitáb-i-Aqdas (1899) Jahangir Dorri 2009

Iran, Persian culture etc.

Article Description and comments Authors Year

Geography, history, culture, people, languages, religions, art, music. Multiple authors 2004

Iranian history: Chronological table
Timeline, including index of proper names Ehsan Yarshater 2004

Boundaries of Iran with the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Turkey. Multiple authors 1989





Overview of the ancient city of Ctesiphon, situated on the Tigris near modern Baghdad Jens Kröger 1993

Renowned archaeological site northeast of Shiraz, Iran; a center of power and culture, built by Achaemenid Persian kings A. Shapur Shahbazi 2009

Underground irrigation canals; their significance in agriculture and water management Xavier de Planhol 2011

Terraced temple-towers in Mesopotamia Michael Herles 2000

Iranian identity
Iranian identity as a collective feeling of belonging to the historic lands of Iran, shaped by common historical experiences, cultural traditions, and mythologies shared among Iranian peoples Multiple authors 2000

Human migration
Three types of human migration related to Iran: internal migration, immigration, and emigration Mehdi Aman, Habibollah Zanjani 2004

Iranian diaspora across history and regions, including India, Southeast Asia, Ottoman Turkey, Iraq, and worldwide Multiple authors 1995

Education in Iranian-speaking regions, spanning ancient to modern times, covering traditional schools, modern education systems, and women’s education Multiple authors 1997

Health in Iran across historical periods: Pre-Islamic, Medieval, Qajar, and Pahlavi eras Multiple authors 2003

Women in Shi’ism
Shi’ite ideology theoretically favors women, but societal norms often limit their rights. Modern debates engage Shi’ite thought, feminism, and societal shifts Moojan Momen 2001

Traditional female garment in Iran, tracing back to pre-Islamic times Bijan Gheiby, James R. Russell, Hamid Algar 1990

Gender relations
Gender relations in modern Persia; complex dynamics shaped by tradition, religion, and modernization Farzaneh Milani 2000

Feminist movements
Persian feminist movements, spanning the late 19th to 20th century, addressing education, employment, suffrage, and family laws Encyclopaedia Iranica, Janet Afary 1999

Class system in the Qajar period
The text outlines class systems across Persian history, including the Avesta, Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian, medieval Islamic, Qajar, and Pahlavi periods Multiple authors 1991

Personal names
Iranian personal names, including Avestan, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian Rüdiger Schmitt 2005

Khanum (title)
General title of respect for women; formerly a title for elite women C. Edmund Bosworth 2010

Khan (title)
Historical and social contexts of the title “Khan,” from its significance in Mongol and Safavid eras to its modern usage in Central Asia and India Gene R. Garthwaite 2017

Household in the Qajar period
The Qajar household was patriarchal, with gender-segregated areas (biruni and andaruni). Women managed traditions, servants handled daily tasks, while men supervised and entertained guests. Shireen Mahdavi 2009

Persian carpets; materials, techniques, designs, regional variations, historical periods, Islamic Persia’s influence Multiple authors 1990

The significance of decoration in Islamic Persian art and architecture, its evolution over different historical periods, and its integration of diverse influences Priscilla P. Soucek 1994

Evolution of Persian etiquette, rooted in Sasanian customs, shaped by Islamic dynasties, blending tradition with Islamic principles and Western influence Multiple authors 1998

Ta’arof encompasses linguistic deference and social gestures, emphasizing status differentials and hospitality, serving as a social lubricant with strategic implications William Beeman 2017

Gift giving
An overview of gift giving in Persia, from pre-Islamic to early modern times Multiple authors 2016

Humor in Persian culture, from classical to modern times, covering its diverse forms, social functions, and evolution under various influences J. T. P. de Bruijn 2004

Mulla Nasreddin
A beloved figure in Persian and Middle Eastern folklore, is known for his wit and humor, often imparting lessons through his tales Hasan Javadi 2009

Overview of clothing in various periods and regions of Iran and neighboring areas, covering historical, cultural, and ethnic aspects Multiple authors 1992

Turban (‘amama)
The cultural significance and historical evolution of the turban in Islamic societies, its symbolism and variations H. Algar 1989

Pearl (marjan)
Pearls symbolized beauty, purity, and perfection, in historical texts and jewelry; diving techniques, pearling vessels, and seasonal activities Brigitte Musche, Daniel T. Potts 2008

Silk (abrisam)
Etymology, trade, production, utilization in Iranian crafts and textiles W. Eilers, M. Bazin and C. Bromberger, D. Thompson 1983

Rose water (golab)
Rose water from Persian roses, is used in cuisine, medicine, and religious rituals Hušang A’lam 2001

Perfume (‘atr)
Ancient origins and diverse extraction methods F. Aubaile-Sallenave 1987

Soap (sabun)
Soap production in Persia dates back to antiquity; modernization in the Qajar era led to industry growth Willem Floor 2005

Cosmetics in Persian tradition were used for beautification, especially for brides. Rituals included hair removal, henna, eyebrow dyeing, and applying kohl and rouge for weddings. Multiple authors 1993

Origin, medical and cosmetic uses, cultural significance in wedding ceremonies, and historical practices across regions Hušang ‘Alam 2003

Historical, architectural, and social aspects of bathhouses in Iran, including their pre-Islamic origins, layout, staff, and cultural significance W. Floor, W. Kleiss 1988

Coffeehouses (qahva kana)
The history of Persian coffeehouses, from centers of culture to decline due to social change and modernization ‘Alī Āl-e Dawūd 1992

The origin of “bazar” as “market,” its functions, organization, and socio-economic roles Multiple authors 1989

Organized collective transports of people and goods, primarily using camels, for trade and pilgrimage; usage declined with the rise of modern transportation Bert G. Fragner 1990

A caravansary, crucial for travelers, provided lodging along trade and pilgrimage routes. They varied in design and function, from fortified stops to luxurious inns, reflecting historical, architectural, and regional influences Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī, Wolfram Kleiss 1990

Garden (bag) – 1
Gardens, for pleasure, with ornamental layouts and architectural elements, influenced literature and art, notably in Persian culture and its impact on Indian gardens Multiple authors 2000

Garden (bag) – 2
Etymology, general characteristics, and its role in Persian literature, symbolizing beauty, tranquility, and abundance Multiple authors 1988

Overview of Iranian deserts, their characteristics, historical significance, human impact, and cultural perceptions Brian Spooner 1994

Seasonal livestock herding by ethnic groups in Iran, sustaining livelihoods through traditional migration patterns Eckart Ehlers 2011

Development of Iranian castles, architectural evolution, defensive strategies, and influences from various civilizations Wolfram Kleiss 1990

Palace architecture
Iranian palace architecture, functional aspects, layout, and cultural continuity across historical periods, from Achaemenid to Safavid times Dietrich Huff 2008

Courts and courtiers
Iranian court systems from ancient to modern times, including cultural elements like court poetry Multiple authors 1993

Scribe (dabir)
The role of dabirs, secretaries and scribes, in pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, their functions and privileges Aḥmad Tafazzoli, Hashem Rajabzadeh 1993

Housed wives and female associates in aristocratic families and royal quarters Multiple authors 2003

Falcon (baz)
Bird of prey, which held cultural significance Hūšang A’lam 1989

Falconry (bazdari)
Prestigious art and sport in Iran, flourishing in pre-Islamic and Islamic eras among rulers and aristocrats Hūšang A’lam 1989

Banners (‘alam, derafs)
Banners guided troops amidst dust; their colors and emblems symbolized identity and authority, evolving from early to late medieval periods A. S. Melikian-Chirvani 1988

Begging in early Islam, Sufism, and in later Iran Multiple authors 1989

The term “darvis” evolved from pre-Islamic asceticism to Islamic Sufism, signifying spiritual poverty and detachment, often involving mendicancy Mansour Shaki, Hamid Algar) 1994

Games (bazi)
Games for small children; games for older children and adults; ceremonial games; theatrical games; games of intelligence Fereydūn Vahman 1989

Decrees issued by rulers, their structure, typology, historical development, seals, and writing materials used Bert G. Fragner 1999

Rulings on Islamic jurisprudence Hamid Algar 1999

Weights and measures
Ancient Near Eastern standards for weight, capacity, and length; their evolution through pre-Islamic periods A. D. H. Bivar 2000

Historical development of communication infrastructure in Persia, covering postal service, telegraph, telephone, press, radio, and television Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi and ‘Alī Mohammadi 1992

Mirza Malkom Khan introduced telegraph to Persia in 1858, expanding to Tabriz by 1860, enabling swift communication within the country and beyond Soli Shahvar 2009

The first railway in Iran, built by a Belgian company, linked Tehran to Shah ‘Abd-al-‘Azim in 1888. Despite challenges like difficult terrain and local superstitions, it operated until 1962. Soli Shahvar 2008

Lighting and heating
Iran’s historical lighting sources, transitioning from oils and candles to kerosene and gas Willem Floor 2005

Edward Gibbon (1737 – 1794)
Gibbon’s “The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” explores Persia’s relations with Byzantium, including military and diplomatic interactions. His conclusions remain relevant. Michael Rogers 2001

Relations with other regions and countries


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